To open the index click the link below
12Gr Copernicus memorial
‘Yacht issue’ stamps
1938 Anschluss propaganda card
2Z Hindenburg overprint
5Z official stamp
10Z buildings definitive
Land Registry fee stamp
Commercial cover to Brazil
Inflation – July 1923
Danzig 5M definitive
Deutsche Nothilfe 40+35Rpf
Cover from Schwerin to Eriwitz
Memel – Court writ of summons
South America flight 1938
Commemorating Zeppelin landings
First Graf Zeppelin flight to
Olympic village to New York
Orient Flight around the Eastern Mediterranean
1934 Christmas flight to
Last flight of the Hindenburg
1938 Anschluss commemorative
First Anniversary of General Government
FRAMA ‘Automat’ machine stamps
Missing inflation overprint
1 Billion Mark stamp
Stamp shortage at Olpe
Regional post-office overprints
625 stamps used on one letter
DDR 225th anniversary of the birth of Mozart (1756-1791)
Bundesrepublik 75th anniversary of the ‘Blue Riband’ by the passenger ship ‘SS Bremen’
DDR Leipzig Spring Fair
Germany & Colonies Philatelic Society
The year 2014 marked the 50th anniversary of the first year of operation of the Germany & Colonies Philatelic Society following the amalgamation of the Germany & Colonies Stamp Club (established 1947) and the Stockton German Study Group (1960).
The G&CPS celebrated its inaugural year in 1964 with the first Germania Posta philatelic exhibition held in Stockton.
The link alongside will take you to the Index to Germania vols. 1-40 (i.e. from 1964 to 2004). Please note that this is a working copy only being used in preparation for a revised edition; the entries shown in red are simply ones which have been identified for later change. The Index is in pdf format to enable rapid searching by keyword.
We have stock of many issues of Germania from the last twenty years or so but very few now of the earlier ones. Do please get in touch with the Chairman (and Publications Manager) Giles du Boulay whether you need just one issue for a particular article, or wish to build up a more comprehensive library of information on various aspects of German philately. Subject to availability, the costs to members of individual issues from volumes 1-14 are £1.00 each, from volumes 15-29 £1.25 each, from volumes 30 onwards £2.00 each. £5.00 each for non-members (subject to discount for quantity). Prices include UK postage. Non-UK extra.
We are looking for someone to volunteer to bring the index up to date - please contact the editor Rex Dixon for details.
Below are synopses of articles in Germania from vol. 36 (year 2000) to date, and as such can provide a measure of searchable indexing by using Ctrl + F (Find).
To open the index click the link below
An Index of Book Reviews in Germania can be found by clicking the link below
SOE's Himmler "Stamp"
AM POST 1945-46: part cash/part stamped frankings (Teilbarfrankatur)
Prisoner of War camps in Germany 1914-1918
The Revenue Stamps of German East Africa:
German Inflation Stamps
"A bit of hot air and hydrogen"
Danzig in the first World War
AM POST 1945-46 Censorship
Additional GB frankings from Alexandria on mail "via Triest" and "per Overland Mail" to destinations "East of Suez"
German Warships 1895-1905
Changes in Postal Rates 1916-23
Insurance Rates for Foreign Letters 1906-1921
Berlin Philharmonic Reconstruction Issue
The German Censor Office in Lyons 1943-1944
The Use of Adhesive Paper Seals by German Royal and Noble Families c.1870-1918
The Concept of German Unification
Special registered envelopes for handwritten letters from the Kaiser and Kaiserin
AM POST - Emergency and re-activated postmarks/cancellers and Registration labels
Reflections on Allied Control Council Issues: the first results of colour determination
Changes in Postal rates 1916-23
Exchange Control and Kempten Criminal Court
Natzweiler-Struthof - the smallest of the concentration camps
POW Camps in Münster in World War I
German Cities Exhibition, Dresden 1903
The Balloons of Louis Godard
Post WWI changes in official adhesive paper seals
German East Africa 1880-1917
Norddeutscher Lloyd, Bremen, Masthead Signals
Changes in Postal Rates 1916-23
The Indian Legion of the WW2 Germany Army
The "Boxer" Uprising in China in 1900
AM POST 1945-46: POW Mail and other Camp Correspondence
Changes in Postal Rates 1916-23
Emergency Registration labels of 1946/47
German Exchange Control at Karlsruhe 1918-1924 and the French Censorship of Mail in Alsace Lorraine 1918-1919. Part 1
Caveat Emptor - a copy of Saxony Mi.Nr.1
G&CPS Visit to Germany
There are still bargains out there!
Another Facet of the Western Front in WW1
Changes in Postal Rates 1916-23
The Development of the Postal System between Saxony and the UK
German Exchange Control at Karlsruhe 1918-1924 and the French Censorship of mail in Alsace Lorraine 1918-1919
Zeppelin & Catapult Mail in the Rohrpost
Changes in Postal Rates 1916-23
German Stamp Dealers' Mail
Early Airmails of Danzig and the Baltic States
AM POST period 1945-46: Postage Due – Nachgebühr
The "Scharnhorst Provisional" of Karolinen
German Field Post Offices in Turkey, 1914-1918
The Godard Family of Balloonists
Design Features of Propaganda Postcards
Postzweig Nachnahme: Cash on Delivery
Receipt for 1 Dollar
The Czech Hostages in Buchenwald
Philatelic Iconoclasm: a sad discovery
Bildpostkarten - the first twenty years.
Changes in Postal rates 1916-23. Part 22: 5-11 November 1923.
The Dresden Kunstausstellung of 1901: some questions.
The German "Horseshoe" cancellations.
Seiner Majestät Schiff 'Danzig'.
A few more 'Horseshoe' cancels.
A View of Heligoland's Classic Philately and its Grouping.
German Issues used in British & French Colonies in Africa.
Removal of the Eagle and Swastika.
The Introduction of the Euro in Germany.
Michel No.97 (A1) Ministerdruck: News from an old Stamp.
German Army Fieldpost Service Overseas, 1992-2002
Neutral Moresnet - A Brief History of a Micro-Nation
Machine-Franking of Commercial Zeppelin Mail to Herman Stolz
The Russians in Danzig, 1945
Who? When? Where? Why? How?
The Berlin Strassenpost
Post-War Germany 1945-46
Nazi Propaganda in Perspective
Resisters of Nazism in Germany: Part I, Communists
POSTSACHE: Official Post of German Postal Administrations
The Prussian Post in Upper Silesia
The Brandenburger Tor
Resisters of Nazism in Germany: Part II, Independents
Martin Bucer (1491-1551)
Kaiserliche Deutsche Marine Schiffspost: Different numeral types?
Resisters of Nazism in Germany: Part III, The Harnacks' Circle
A postcard tells its story...
World Heritage Sites in Germany: Part I - Religious Sites.
The Currency Reform in Germany, June 1948
Official registered envelopes for Royal hand-written letters
Resisters of Nazism in Germany: Part IV, The Conspirators
Lauenburg in Pomerania - memories of
a lost homeland
Württemberg: Philatelic History to 1875
Also enclosed with this issue a special supplement on useful websites for German collectors.
The German Raider Pinguin
Postwar Königsberg/Kaliningrad 1945-1949
Eilnachricht and Eilauftrag cards of Dresden
Gdynia: The Polish Corridor
The Remembrance Cruise of the 'Monte Rosa'
The Free City of Danzig: Nazism and the Church
The German Eagle
A major PLZ (post-code) and Postmark rarity - or is it?
The National Assembly in Weimar: February 1919
S.M.S. 'Dresden'; her end and her crew's fate
Stuttgart's Private City Post - and All-Round Service: Part 1- The Adhesive Stamps
The Berlin Strassenpost revisited
German Bicycle Clubs up to 1932
Stuttgart's Private City Post - An All-Round Service
'The Postal Curiosity of the Century'
Extra, Extra! Grandson of George III dethroned!
The work of a German Wartime Censor
A suggestion followed up...over twenty years later!
Labels affixed to mail arriving in Dresden without stamps/contents
Stuttgart's Private City Post - an All-Round service: part 3
Frauentrachten - Ladies' Traditional Costumes
Stobs Camp 1914-1919
Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805)
Stuttgart's Private City Post - An All-Round service
Saarlouis - a town of several names
Changes to the frontiers of Germany 1919-1940
'Soldatenbriefe' labels to and from Dresden
Stuttgart's Private City Post - an All-Round Service
Stamp Days in Germany up to 1945; Part I 1936-40
Forged Datestamps of the Polish Post in Danzig 1925-3
From 'QEII' to the 'Hohenzollern'
A German P.O.W. in England 1945-48
Stamp Days in Germany up to 1945 Part II - 1941-45
Graf Zeppelin LZ127 Orient Flight 1929 and the replacement Egyptian Flight
Late 19th century official German mail
The Reichsmusikkammer in Dresden
Forced Civilian Labour: the Philemon Schoeckaert correspondence
Estonia: Local & National Issues 1941-43
The Zeppelin-Eckener Fund
Mail of German mercantile submersibles, 1916-1917
A Photograph of von Paulus
Airmail Directional Handstamps involving Berlin
World Heritage Sites in Germany Part 2 - Castles and Stately Homes
Heinrich von Stephan (1831-1897)
The German Red Cross, 1914-1918
Service Suspended - Labels on mails that could not be delivered in wartime
Deutsche Städte-Ausstellung 1903 in Dresden
Successes at Bristol
Martin Luther (1483-1546); the 450th anniversary of his death
Air mails between Germany and China to 1945
A Hungarian Study of the 1948 Buildings Series
Konstanz Exchange Control Office 1918-1924
The Story behind the Stamp: 650th Anniversary of the Golden Bull
Württemberg Postal Stationery addressed to Dr. Adolf Weil (1848-1916)
The Zeppelin-Eckener Fund
50 Years of Kinderdorf Flugpost: From Free Balloon to Zeppelin NT
A Hohenzollern Seal discovered on board ship
Zeitungsbestellung: Newspaper Orders
World Heritage Sites in Germany:
The Tram Post of Hamburg
Mixed Frankings in Dresden, 1945-46
World Heritage Sites in Germany: Part 4 (Historic Towns and Sites).
Gemeinnütziger Verein Stadtbriefbeförderung.
German Post Offices in China.
Danzig to German occupied Warsaw on WW1.
The Steamship 'Dresden' in the Vorpostenflotille Jade-Weser.
Bavarian Military Censor in May 1919?
The 'Bauernball' in Dresden: Some advertising Postcards and Vignettes
Kamerun: Post Office Forms
The Recent History of the Saar illustrated by its Meter Marks
'Liebesgabenpakete' - parcels sent by civilians of neutral countries to Axis civilians during WWII.
Catapult mail of the North Atlantic
Modern German Private Posts
The Danish Brigade in Germany 1947-1949 and the Danish Command in Germany 1949-1958
'Liebesgabenpakete': an addendum
Prussia: King Frederick William IV postal stationery envelopes 1851-1860
The christening of His Majesty's Yacht 'Meteor' 25 February 1902
German East Africa: more to pay/postage due
German official census stamps 1903, 1905. Why were they used?
Acquisition of the Berliner Privatpost und Spedition in 1897
Two letters of the Franco-Prussian War
Anton Hechler: the story of a 19th-century German immigrant
A German internee in Spain during World War II
My life and times - or how the Stadtpost Collectors Group was born
Eilbrief/Eilkarte of the Berliner Verkehrs-Anstalt 'Hansa II'
An exchange control story: Importing stamps
Modern German private posts (II) - an update
Fraudulent cancellations of the inflation period
Pasewark, Danzig: Doubly date stamped card
The Story behind the Stamp: Carl Zuckmayer, Der Hauptmann von Köpenick
From Minsk to Warsaw
My favourite item: Last prewar mail from German East Africa
A tribute to Bronisław Czech
The 1925 Deutsche Nothilfe stamp booklets
A ship called Berlin
Some philatelic contrivances re the Berliner Packetfahrt.
The British Legion Volunteer Police Force: September/October 1938
The story behind the stamp: The Hanseatic League
In the absence of an official seal
German letter rates from 1.1.2009
South African occupation of German South West Africa: Adapted German postmarks
A humble Ukraine cover that inspired a collection
A German floating postbox
Camp stationery for Jehovah's Witnesses
The 1926 Deutsche Nothilfe stamp booklets
German royal mail
The end of German private posts
Expertisation of inflationals
Millions of leaflets over Dresden, 1944-45
Chambers of Commerce, Town Hall and Police certification of mail in British-occupied Rhineland 1919
The story behind the stamp: The Celtic prince of Glauberg
Saxony in 1945: the 'Sächsische Schwärzungen'
A Heligoland item
Stamps of the secret post in occupied Warsaw 1943
Some items of Dresden diplomatic mail
Expertisation regulations of the BPP
The memorial meeting of the military transport units in Dresden, 6-8 May 1922 (reproduced, in translation, from 'Infla-Berichte' 224/2006 with kind permission).
Königsberg Exchange Control Office 1918-1925: Part 1
An unusual Kamerun cover
Not worth a week's wage!
'Thank you, Albert!' - a tribute to Albert Thasler
Emil Reichardt Krippner - a biography in covers
The story behind the stamp: Heinrich Zille
An overlooked Ukraine gem from eBay
Where is Brest-Litowsk?
There always was an England
The story behind the stamp: Carl Schurz (1829-1906), German revolutionary and American democrat
Modern German private posts (III) - 2008: an open marketplace
Private trade with Romania discouraged
Königsberg Exchange Control Office 1918-1925: Part 2
The Sudeten-German Freikorps
Occupied Belgium treated as an enemy
The story behind the stamp: the Franciscan friar Alfred Stanke
A Königsberg exchange control cover
The 1927 Deutsche Nothilfe stamp booklets
Decorative envelope for Wilhelm I & Augusta
Baron von Richthofen
International mail via Trieste 1840-1871
Memelland ist frei! The occupation overprints of 1939
Restrictions on registered mail and the SA/SS stamps
The Anti-German 'Winox' labels
An Indian parole centre, a German pioneer aviator and a Greek bank.
The German transit camp at Friedland.
The artistic development of the Deutsche Nothilfe 1933 stamps - Scenes from Wagner.
The story behind the stamp.
German Post Office economies after WW1
'Punktverrechnungskarten und -stellen'
A political mischmasch: a cover from the Ukraine
Field post letter to Haifa
Problems with a Bickerdike machine
'Deutsches Reich' overprints on Bavaria used in Dresden
New Zeppelin mail forgeries
Litzmannstadt Ghetto stamp issues
Freedom of Weeze to RAF Laarbruch
Delivering stamps to German post offices in 1923
The story behind the stamp: Königin Luise von Preußen
Currency reform in Berlin
The birth of German stamp booklets
Camp Siegfried in Yaphank, New York
Sudeten crisis: a postcard from Ústí nad Labem
A not-so-usual ZKD cover from the DDR
Further aspects of 'Punktverrechnungskarten'
Interesting WWI field post authorisation handstamps: (1) 'Minen-Werfer' (2) Western GHQ field hospital
German East Africa: The Marie and the watermarked 1 Rupie
From the invention of the parcel card to the cork cancels of Danzig - and the battle for the stamps attached to them!
The birth of German stamp booklets: A new discovery
Deutsche Nothilfe order cards
Currency reform of June 1948
Air Marshall Sir Arthur Harris and the Graf Zeppelin
Export of samples of merchandise
Forgery, fakery and fraud
Where was the illustrated 'Return' cachet used?
Can you explain the apparent charge of 95 groschen on this parcel card?
Interesting WWI field post authorisation handstamps: A General Headquarters assortment.
The aftermath of World War 1 and the inflation
Service suspended in German South-West Africa
The first 2Pf postal stationery card of 1900 and postage due
Berlin 16pf with doubled black overprint
The ordinal dot is important!
The stamps of NordBrief, a modern German private post
A favourite much-gestempelt cover
Interesting WW1 field post authorisation handstamp: Artillery observation balloon crew
The story behind the stamp: Reichskanzler Otto von Bismarck
The Berlin Strassenpost
The Saar Plebiscite, 13 January 1935
The first day after the high inflation
The story behind the stamp: Heinrich von Kleist, Prinz Friedrich von Homburg
A missed birthday uncovers a sunken ship
Service suspended: First Gulf War, 1991
Bismarck mourning card
Interesting WWI field post authorisation handstamp: The Kaiser's Silver room at GHQ
The stamps of Nordbrief, a modern German private post: Part 2
Déjà-vu: The source of the Zeppelin forgeries
The Eastern Front
A Bavarian Feldpost item and its place in history
Memelland ist frei! Addendum
The Rinteln-Stadthagen Railway (1900-1937)
Trains to the Saar plebiscite
Karl Friedrich Schinkel, architect and painter
The Nazi rocket mail of 1934
Operation Hannibal: Evacuation from the East
An extraordinary item from Lichtenburg Concentration Camp
The story behind the stamp: Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Nathan der Weise
Private post going abroad
800th anniversary of the House of Wettin
A card to the Łódź ghetto
Another card to the Łódź ghetto
The Prussian court officials' name-stamps
A Punktverrechnungskarte with watermark
Portopflichtige Dienstsache: A surcharge gives rise to an odd amount of postage due
Graf Zeppelin over Ammersee in Bavaria
The postal history of German airships in WWI
BAOR: Mixed handstamps on one envelope
A used Deutsche Nothilfe order card
The NSB 'postmark' of 13 May 1940
Service suspended to Brazil in July 1919
An introduction to German WWII censorship, with some quirks, anomalies and errors: Part 1
Krippner forgeries: A plea for assistance
Colonial troops in World War I
Poste restante during the Anschluss
Confusion during the introduction of the DM
Attempted ten-times franking in the French zone
An introduction to German WWII censorship, with some quirks, anomalies and errors: Part 2
A Litzmannstadt card: forgery, fake or fantasy?
Dr Otto Nicodemus, an interesting addressee
Quisling: from patriot to traitor
Service suspended to Japan in 1948
The story behind the stamp: Friedrich der Große, König von Preußen
Analysis of a registered letter sent from Bohemia & Moravia on 10 September 1944 to Slovakia.
The Graf Zeppelin's enforced landing at Cuers
Hans Ranzoni (1896-1991), master engraver
Slesvig plebiscite postal stationery
An introduction to German WWII censorship, with some quirks, anomalies and errors: Part 3
The story behind the stamp: Emperor Otto I, called the Great
The KLV and Dresden
German racing: An expensive meal
Its thirsty work at the front
The work of the German wartime censor
An introduction to German WWII censorship, with some quirks, anomalies and errors: Part 4
Deutsche Nothilfe: Postwar facsimiles
Munich exhibitions in the 19th century
The story behind the stamp: Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)
Catapulted both eastbound and westbound
The German Atlantic Expedition 1925-1927
German international return-to-sender labels (up to WWI)
The story behind the stamp: Friedrich Hebbel and his drama Agnes Bernauer
What's in a country's name? Part 1: Germany until 1945
Postage due on foreign mail in late 1919
German East Africa: The use of the 2 Mark stamp as a forerunner
Alternative names for the months
Service suspended from western Germany to Yugoslavia
Judaica uncovered 1: Fear, flight and fate - the plight of Jews in Nazi Germany
Closure of the Berlin collectors' counter in 1923
Open Philately: its international status
German racing: (i) Hoppegarten & (ii) Oleander
What's in a country's name? Part 2: Germany from 1945
Prisoner in Ruhleben to Fiji in 1917
Speedy delivery in Württemberg
Censorship postscript: Ribbed sealing tapes and the cachets used with them
Personalised issues of the DPAG
Political awareness through the postmarks of postwar western Germany
BAOR: A lot of answers
The Heroes of the Emden?
The Inflation Period: Ranking the definitive
Censorship postscript: Chemical swipes
Treaty of Versailles
The Bavarian Soviet Republic and a philatelic phantasy
Judaica uncovered 2: The expropriation of Jewish businesses and property in Nazi Germany
The Kulturkampf between the Prussian State and the Church: An addendum.
The cover posted on 30 October 1918 has a multiple franking of the Mi. P6 postage due stamp of the Romanian occupation.
The designs of Elisabeth von Janota-Bzowski
The story behind the stamp: The Sky Disc of Nebra
Mail detained in France during the German occupation
The 1928 Deutsche Nothilfe stamp booklets
Censorship postscript: WWII censorship in Wiesbaden - a new discovery
A Judaica postscript: Another letter to the Shanghai 'ghetto'
News from home?
Most beautiful stamp 2012
1914 - The first war year
The start of WWI: Effects on mail services
Germany to UK in August 1914
Postal history from the early days of World War I
The last mails to leave German East Africa before the outbreak of war
The outbreak of WWI: East Prussia: Russian mail censored in Danzig
The story behind the stamp: Gottfried Schadow
The 1929 Deutsche Nothilfe stamp booklets
The Saar Plebiscite, 13 January 1935
Postal stationery wrappers of Germany: an analysis of supply and demand
Mails from German East Africa after the outbreak of war
Judaica uncovered 3: Kindertransport to the UK, 1939
‘Europa trauert’, 1915: An enigma
Posted on Glider Hill: Glider mail from the Wasserkuppe
German letter rates from 1 January 2015
Postage rate increases of 50 per cent. Part 1: 1 August 1916
Mail to Nassau: Error made by exchange control
An ‘old-fashioned billion’ mark cover
Rhein-Main postcard to Switzerland: redirected and returned
‘Postkrieg’ slogan in 1958
Print and handwriting in pre-1945 Germany, Part 1
Sudetendeutsche Partei propaganda stamps
Exchange rates for the Reichsmark
Ten years of EXPONET
Egon Falz, stamp engraver
German use of the Cairo-Baghdad airmail service from 1922
The development of the German domestic-rate postal card 1873-1900
Lundy ‘German occupation’ stamps
Insufficiently franked international mail
Cover to Verena Wagner
The ‘Berlin’ marginal inscriptions
1915 – The second war year
Print and handwriting in pre-1945 Germany, Part 2
Checklist of Germania volumes 1 to 50
Postcards from the 1933 Deutscher Almanach and a KdF.-Kalender
A quiet wedding in 1788
Print and handwriting in pre-1945 Germany, Part 3
The German Peasants’ War and its tragic end
German medieval sculptures and Tilman Riemenschneider
The 1925 postal stationery provisional of Dresden
German letter rates from 1 January 2016
Did you know...?
Judaica uncovered 4: Mail to and from Holocaust victims
A fictional German stamp
The Gscheidle stamp: A mistake?
German East Africa: Samples without value
Print and handwriting in pre-1945 Germany, Part 4
Greek factories appropriated for the Nazi war effort
Did you know...?
‘Spätheimkehrerpost’: Mail from late-return POWs in the USSR
German occupation of Belgium and northern France 1914-1918
1916 – the third war year
Concessionary foreign rates from Germany, December 1923 to May 1945
Postal stationery cards with large holes!
Did you know ...?
A New Year’s Day stamp exchange with the USSR
Introduction to our new website!
The first German post offices in East Africa: Lamu and Zanzibar
The war levy in 1916
The Leipzig Trial of 1933
Postage-Due on unpaid and underpaid letter mail, Part 1
A little-known youth KZ
Did you know ...?
The Crime of Katyn: a poignant reminder
Sheet margins reveal their secrets
Did you know ...?
Of the incoming and outgoing posts in Lübeck
UK ‘number’ labels for parcels from Germany
Carrier covers for zeppelin flights
Postage-Due on unpaid and underpaid letter mail, Part 2
A highly insured letter from 1924
English meanings of words commonly used in Imperial German paper seals
answers questions surrounding one of the most intriguing of SOE's projects, the production and use of a stamp bearing Himmler's head instead of Hitler's...
examines covers bearing combinations of AM POST stamps and Gebühr bezahlt markings...
some information to help write up your collection...
invaluable detailed usage and printing information with colour illustrations of these very rare stamps.
a good survey of the various stamp issues from 1921 to 1924, the "Rhineland Republic" stamps, varieties, marginal markings...
two Danzig flight cards compared...
various patriotic cards, censored, prisoner of war, military hospital marks on cober and cards illustrated...
detailed survey of censorship markings of the Bristish and American Zones...
article reproduced from "Postal History" with thanks, colour illustrations...
colour illustrations and background information on some very attractive postcards...
16th part of a long series of articles examining covers and cards from the period in quantity...
Study covering the Joint Sovereignty, military mails, disinfected mail and postal cancels. Profusely illustrated.
Adds new information to published sources - explains background to the rates, the effects of wartime and the early inflationary period and the make-up of frankings on four example insured letters.
The story behind this stamp issue in 1950.
In depth study covering the censor office's activities, mail with Switzerland and Italy, markings applied to mail, the temporary "Dienststelle", definitive and transit hand-stamps, the sealing strips, secret writing tests and the readers' marks.
Article on a little known and unusual subject - poses interesting questions - with many illustrations of rarely seen material.
Some commemorative stamps and their historical background. Covers the period from 1848 to 1989 - very interesting and many good illustrations.
A subject given little attention in postal history publications. The author illustrates and describes three different types of special envelope and seeks more information.
illustrated and detailed study of this aspect of the AM POST issues and the Anglo-American zone.
research to determine the colours of the different colour shades of the stamps of the series issued by the Allied Control Council.
Part 17 of this long running series of articles; this part deals with the period 20-30 September 1923. Many illustrations.
Study of an unusual cover.
A history of this perhaps relatively unknown but infamous camp illustrating a rare printed postcard from a Luxembourger inmate with the comparatively low number of 976.
Detailed information about the three camps which housed some 90,000 POWs. Many photos of the camps, and illustrations of letters and cards to and from the camps including a most interesting letter from the Rennbahn camp after the war when kept open as a Heimkehrlager.
Some cards and some questions including several Louis Godard balloon cards. The author seeks more information.
More balloons! Leipzig and Munich exhibitions. How to tell the genuinely carried cards.
It's surprising how much there is t paper seals - so often ignored on the backs of covers.
Notes of a display given at the Royal Philatelic Society on 11 January 2001 with superb colour illustrations of some extremely scarce items.
More lovely colour illustrations of the beautiful series of NDL cards - a quick course in reading naval signals! [For a detailed postal history of the NDL see the monograph advertised on this web site!]
Part 18! Covers the period 1-9 October 1923.
From the end of 1932 until the end of the war about three thousand Indians fought in the German Army. This article tells the story of Sabbas Chandra Bose and the development of the Division Brandenburg. Information and illustrations of Indian Legion Field Post and the "Azad Hind" stamps.
A short background history with two interesting German consular seal items about which the author has some questions which he hopes members may be able to answer.
A selection of cards and covers to POWs in American, British and other camps abroad sent through the civilian postal system.
Part 19 covering the period 10-19 October 1923.
A study of the various ways in which people dealt with the lack of registration labels due to the shortages of materials immediately after WWII. Sixteen covers illustrated in colour.
The story of the mail through the Karlsruhe exchange control office is inextricably linked to the story of the French attitude to Germany after WWI and the French censorship of mail in Alsace Lorraine in 1918-1919. A comprehensive and well-presented study of mail inspection procedures, the cachets, labels and wax seals.
One stamp made from two originals! A cautionary tale.
One of the benefits of belonging to the Society....
Just shows you how having some specialised knowledge can lead to discoveries in dealers' boxes!
Mail from occupied Belgium to the USA.
Part 20, covering the period 20-31 October 1923.
A detailed study of the mail from 1700 to 1867 with full, chronological information on routes and rates by arrangement (1) of the Reichspost via the Netherlands (2) with Thurn and Taxis (3) with the Prussian post via Hamburg (4) with the Prussian Post via the Netherlands and later via Belgium and (5) by agency of the Prussian Post. Numerous entire letters and covers described and illustrated, many in colour.
The second part of this specialised study including analysis of routes of mail inspected at Karlsruhe, labels, cachets, inspectors' numeral cachets and wax seals.
What a combination! Some very choice items described and illustrated. By studying the Berlin or Vienna transit marks on your Zeppelin covers, you may discover a Rohrpost connection!
Part 21: 1-4 November 1923. The author won the "Literature Award" at Germania Posta XV for this prodigious series of articles in Germania.
An interesting selection of covers and cards on this subject was displayed at Germania Posta XV. The material is offered here to readers with a few extra notes.
Fifteen colour illustrations of airmail cards and covers carried during the 1920s from Danzig, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Memel. A nice hand-drawn map and explanations of the franking’s and transit marks complete the picture!
Postage due covers are usually full of interest - those of this period are no exception. The author shares his considerable knowledge of the period immediately after WWII, describing unpaid or underpaid official, private and commercial mail.
A great rarity of German colonial philately, seldom seen either on piece or on a complete card.
An overview of German military activities in the Ottoman Empire - illustrating and explaining many covers sorted in field and base Post Offices as well as on board SMS "Goeben", "Loreley" and "General" moored off Constantinople.
Three generations of the Godard family constructed, piloted and demonstrated balloons in the 19th century. Ballooning was clearly in their blood! During the Prussian siege of Paris 1870/1 four members of the family flew Ballons-montés.
A fascinating look at the powerful graphical messages delivered by postcards of the Third Reich and how this brutal regime sought domination and control through the insidious propaganda of these cleverly designed cards. Many of the cards described are illustrated in full colour.
article will really help you understand cash on delivery mail items between 1900 and 1923 - these being recognisable by either a mauve square label (until 1906) or an orange triangular label (after 1906). The service, fees and rates are all explained, with a useful rates table. 13 cards and covers are illustrated in full colour with analysis.
A curious cover sent in 1921 from Indianapolis to Bavaria. The author tries to unravel the mystery of the markings relating to its original contents - a one dollar note. Can you shed more light on this?
Items of mail from these hostages are not common. They will interest collectors of Czech material as well as German. Background information is given as well as details of the regulations relating to the sending and receipt of mail.
The author sets out the "evidence which destroyed an icon of Heligoland's philately".
The story of the development of the cards in design and print during the first twenty years of their use. A first trial printing and the various issues are illustrated with many examples.
A possible attempt to "improve" an exchange control cover from the Danzig area, 1920. The author seeks help in confirming whether the exchange control label is genuine.
The material used in this survey shows just how well the German Post Offices coped with the great difficulties of keeping pace with the astronomical inflation.
Beautiful colour illustrations of a number of cards, often humorous, produced for the Art Exhibition held in the city between 20 April and 20 October 1901. The author welcomes further information.
The story behind the introduction of these distinctive cancellations and their eventual use in forty-one towns. Many illustrations of the cancellations used on covers and cards, some quite rare.
For the enthusiastic collector wishing to add a few items from this 'namesake' warship to a specialised Danzig collection! Information on the analysis and writing up of items of mail sent to or from S.M.S. 'Danzig', or indeed any other WW1 German naval ship.
A supplement to the article in the May 2002 issue adding illustrations of the cancels from Colmar and Mühlhausen, Oberndorf and Pollnow.
A comprehensive article reproduced from Philatelie, translated into English by one of the Society's members. An attempt is made both to portray Heligoland's postal history from the early 18th century to the period of British postal administration ending 9 August 1890, and to group it logically, providing a framework for subsequent study. Illustrated with pre-stamp entries and stamped letters from 1702 to 1866
Information on, and illustrations of, 1880/90s mail from German merchants in the Gold Coast and other places to Germany via Woermann steamers franked with German stamps in contravention of UPU regulations.
Colour illustrations of 1945-47 pre-printed envelopes showing the efforts made, and indeed the lack of effort, to remove symbols of the Third Reich from items going through the post, as decreed by the Allied Forces in Germany in 1945.
Philately is alive and well in Germany!! Even the introduction of the Euro can provide interest for collectors.
The author calls into question the attribution of this sought after stamp as a so-called "Ministerdruck" (a stamp produced for presentation for official purposes).
The first of several major articles derived from superb displays at 'Heide Posta' at Fallingbostel in August, to appear in Germania over the next few issues.
This article demonstrates how quality philatelic interest can be found in modern (post-war!) covers from Germany. It sets out to show the participation of the Bundeswehr in international humanitarian operations overseas in recent years.
This article is an object lesson in how to extract maximum philatelic interest from the study of a small area (just 344 hectares), a dispute between two great powers (the Netherlands and Prussia in this case), and a dash of political horse-trading (the Congress of Vienna 1815)! Super colour illustrations!
Intrigued? So is the author! Not intrigued? Write to the author!
Not all Zeppelin mail is philatelic! The author provides some tests and clues for determining commercial Zeppelin mail.
An exciting discovery of a card probably sent home from a Russian soldier in Danzig in 1945. The author has not seen another in some 25 years of collecting Danzig. More information is sought.
Written in fond memory of a close friend and perhaps an unusual introduction to philately. The author believes, that he, in 1948, was the first English schoolboy to live with a German family and attend a German school since before the war. His reminiscences make for fascinating reading, with useful background information on "INSELPOST" stamps.
What a joy to read! One cannot help feeling, when reading this superbly written article by the author of the Society's latest monograph on the Berlin Rohrpost, that a horse-drawn Travelling Post Office system, such as the Strassenpost in 1890s Berlin, is just what the Royal Mail should introduce in London today!
A helpful expansion on an article from the August 2002 issue of Germania about the removal of the eagle and swastika.
Also, more thought-provoking detail following on from the article in the February 2002 issue of Germania about design features of propaganda postcards.
It is intended that future parts of this series will cover German resistance by other than members of the German Communist Party. This part provides helpful background information, to the stamps commemorating communist resisters issued in the Russian occupied area of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Berlin, and the DDR with beautiful colour illustrations of the stamps.
This is a major article on the subject - profusely illustrated in both colour and black and white with clear explanation of examples from 1724 up to the present day; from Prussia, Bavaria, Hanover, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Westphalia, Saxony, the Kaiserliche DR /Deutsche Reichspost, up to Allied Occupation and recent usages. Essential reading.
In another of the major articles derived from exhibits at Fallingbostel last year, we are treated to a range of superb postal history items from various towns in Upper Silesia, with illustrations of the town arms and chronological and other details of the introduction of the Prussian postal administration and handstamps following the Truce of Breslau in 1742. The explanations of postal markings on weights and rates will also be helpful to the wider study of the Prussian Post.
During the dark days of the Wall, the Tor characterised the division of Germany, but in 1989 it became a powerful symbol of the unification of Germany and, by extension, of unification everywhere. The article, illustrated in colour, is based on a thematic display and includes an early telegram and several Rohrpost cards from the office at the Tor, special handstamps, meter cancellations, postal history and stamps (of particular note are DDR and Berlin trial issues).
Part I (Germania Vol.39 No.1) described anti-Nazi resisters whose activities were prescribed by their political party, the KPD; the present article describes those who based their resistance on the prompting of their own consciences. A thought-provoking study illustrated with stamps from the DDR, Deutsche Bundespost, Berlin and France.
The death of Martin Bucer (often anglicised to Butzer) a German Protestant reformer who ended his days as a Professor at the University of Cambridge, was commemorated by the issue of a special stamp in February 2001. Most interestingly we are shown illustrations of the competing design entries for that stamp including the selected design.
Taking S.M.S. Dresden as an example the author illustrates differences in the numerals on ostensibly the same MSP postmarks thus questioning the received wisdom that only one such canceller was issued at a time per ship.
The title of this Part relates to a large group of friends and relatives of the married couple Dr. Arevid Harnack and Dr. Mildred Harnack, who opposed Nazism for a decade until their detection. Short biographies of some of the principals in the Circle are first given, then the climax of the Circle's activities during the fateful years 1940-1942 is described.
A translation of an article which first appeared in Philatelie 278. The Gruss aus Eberswalde postcard tells its own tale from first sending on 28 January 1895, its journey by mail-coach and sea, shipwreck and rescue and eventual delivery to Washington D.C. after 47 days rather than the then usual two weeks. A gentle and charming lesson in interpreting the many clues offered by an unassuming postcard.
This article, being another of the superb exhibits derived from Fallingbostel in 2002, illustrated and describes stamps and postmarks relating to the German UNESCO Commission, Lorsch, Reichenau, Aachen, Hildesheim, Speyer, Maulbronn and Cologne.
Again from Fallingbostel, a major and detailed article on the basis and effects of the currency reform profusely illustrated largely in colour. Full explanations of the franking’s are given for each of the covers shown.
An interim report following up the author's article in the November 2000 issue on the same topic. More information is still needed.
The names of some of the ill-fated conspirators who attempted to rid the world of Hitler come readily to mind: Stauffenberg, Bonhoeffer, Beck - there were many others, perhaps less well-known, whose stories are also told in Part IV of this fascinating article and who are commemorated on illustrated German stamps.
Postcards from Lauenburg, all illustrated in colour, from a charming and beautifully put together 'Heimat' collection in which the material speaks for itself and which may serve as a useful example to others seeking to do the same for their hometown, wherever it may be situated.
An article, written by the late and much missed Franceska Rapkin, reproduced from the 'American Philatelist' on the occasion of the 150th year of the introduction of postage stamps into the postal service of Württemberg.
The author introduces this article by saying that "German philatelic fun begins where the Michel catalogue stops"! Now is your chance to find out about a booklet of 'Hitler stamps' produced in the 1970s with a holiday advertisement for Bournemouth interleaving the sheets! Then there is the postcard inscribed "Siegesparade in London, 20. April 1941" - intrigued? Enjoy the article!
The auxiliary cruiser Pinguin, a converted freighter, was a successful 'raider' operating mainly in Indian Ocean. Her fascinating story is told here, in brief, in an article which first appeared in "Postal History", the Journal of the Postal History Society, reproduced with their kind permission. A small selection of Feldpost covers from the ship before she set off on her wartime mission in June 1940 are shown.
Until 1946, the Germans remaining in the renamed Kaliningrad Oblast had virtually no contact with the outside world. There was no postal service and the only way to send or receive mail to and from Germany was to have it smuggled across the Russian-Polish border. Interesting details are given here of such clandestine mail along with an appeal for more information from readers.
These special 'express service' cards were used in wartime Germany following the heavy air raids. Eilnachricht cards with red frames for civilian addresses and with green frames for fieldpost addresses were used by survivors to send urgent news, of either a lucky escape or sad loss of life or home. Eilauftrag cards with a violet frame were used to check whether a mail address was still correct. Besides the official stationery there are many privately made cards - various examples of both categories, from the Dresden area, are illustrated in colour and described.
By means of some very interesting postcards and covers, illustrated in colour, the author briefly tells the story of the transformation of the fishing village Gdingen into the modern port of Gdynia in the 1920/30s, its occupation and further change of name to Gotenhafen in 1939 and its reversion to the Polish name of Gdynia in 1945.
After the first world war the anniversaries of three major naval battles were often marked by simple wreath laying ceremonies performed by passing German warships. On at least one occasion, however, a special cruise was arranged to enable relatives, friends and former comrades of the German seamen who had lost their lives to pay their own tributes. The liner 'Monte Rosa' was chartered in the late summer of 1933 by Nazi Party groups in Hamburg in conjunction with the local newspaper Hamburger Tageblatt. Examples are shown here of various photo postcards, special handstamps and on board cachets used in connection with the somewhat sombre cruise.
A fairly ordinary looking official letter from the Danzig Court on 10.5.1939 tells a story of human suffering...
The story of the first nationwide postcode system (postleitzahl) - how it was introduced by Nazi Germany in 1941 to apply to small parcels but was later extended to cover all mail. The system, its further development and its post-war successors are explained with illustrations in this most useful article.
The postal service by steamer on the Lake of Starnberg was introduced in 1851 and continued until 1929. The wealth of beautiful cards illustrated in full colour show just how one can bring fun and interest and perhaps a little romance to your collection...
The author examines the evolving image of the eagle as depicted in German postage stamps. The changes in design are not simply a case of stylistic variation: they reflect changes in German society. Many superb colour illustrations.
A rare postmark find caused much excitement when found in a dealer's box - but it turns out to be a blatant forgery - the author seeks more information and comments.
After the turmoil of the revolutionary uprising in post-WW1 Germany, elections were held for a National Assembly, which was celebrated by a new series of postage stamps - the design of these was thrown open to public competition and was greeted with an enthusiastic response. The varying prize designs are illustrated.
The author gives a resumé of the German warship's first world war service and recounts how she was attacked in March 1915 by H.M.S. 'Glasgow' whilst at anchor, and not seaworthy, in neutral Chilean waters. The ship was scuttled. The article contains illustrations and descriptions of many letters and cards to and from the ship, and surviving crew. A fascinating study.
This invaluable in-depth study of the Stuttgart City Post is essential reading for all those interested in the German City Posts - a collecting area which has an enthusiastic following represented by the Society's associated "Stadtpost" collectors' group, details of which appear in the front of Germania. The article is superbly illustrated in colour throughout - may of the items are extremely rare.
The author shares with us here a large selection from his wonderful collection of early Zeppelin postal items and memorabilia - most of which are illustrated in colour. We are given a wealth of background information and technical details of many of the airships from LZ1 to LZ120. An outstanding 29 page article!
A follow up to the article in the February 2003 issue featuring a Rohrpost card which had passed through the Strassenpost, illustrations of various Strassenpost items and a plan showing the sites of the delivery post offices at the inception of the service (1.11.1889) and at its closure.
Apparently the popularity of cycling, particularly by ladies, excited some comment in the 1890s! The clubs flourished as can be seen by the enormous range of beautifully designed souvenir postcards, vignettes, and other material - many of which are superbly illustrated in colour. A delightful collection which may inspire you to 'get on your bike' to the nearest postcard fair to look for some cards for yourself.
Continuing on from the article in the previous issue - this part deals in depth with the Stamp imprinted stationery. Normal postcards, the Jubilee issue and postcards with advertisements on the front are all covered, mainly illustrated in colour.
A "12.12.12" card with a "188.8.131.52" postmark!
Two letters from Hanover posted on the same day (16 October 1866), one showing usage of the postage stamps of Hanover during the period of grace before they were phased out and the other bearing the new Prussian franking.
A thought-provoking summary of a personal account of work in a wartime postal censor station.
An interesting letter from Korv. Kapt. Crüsemann (fully translated) whose seminal work on the Marine Schiffspost was translated in sections in Germania Vol.17/18.
An outline study of these labels calling for further research.
The series continues with more information, with many illustrations, on the stamp imprinted stationery - featuring postcards with advertising on the reverse and postcards printed to private order.
A superb study of the attractive 1935 Frauentrachten charity stamps - the stamps, both individual and in booklet panes, and their usage on covers and cards are fully illustrated in colour. The article gives details of the design and costumes as well as historical background.
Postal history of the British military camp near Hawick which was used as an Internment and POW camp from 1914 to 1919. This fascinating study includes photos of the camp and prisoners, as well as many illustrations of postmarks, censor marks, postcards, letters, and the special wrappers for sending out the camp newspaper 'Stobsiade'.
In this 200th anniversary year, some notes on Schiller's life and a look at his drama 'Kabale und Liebe'.
A selection of beautiful postcards, illustrated in colour, telling the remarkable story of the ship posts on the Bodensee. Five countries, each with their own postal authority, controlled the waters of the lake. Between 1897 and 1900 it was regarded as 'fun' by holiday makers to make up combination covers with one stamp from each of the five States.
Part 4 of this detailed study deals further with the Stamp-imprinted stationery. Normal, 'Jubilee' (the Silver Jubilee of King Karl), and privately ordered envelopes are illustrated and described in profusion.
The history and changing names of the town reflected by its different postmarks: Saare-Louis, Sarre Libre, Saarlouis, Saarlautern.
The many changes in the territorial frontiers of Germany following World War I are described and illustrated with a selection of stamps and 'mourning labels' from amongst others Eupen-Malmédy, Luxemburg, Elsaß, Saar, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Posen, Danzig, Memel and Schleswig-Holstein.
Although the many postcards and covers illustrated in colour in this article relate specifically to the Dresden area, special 'Soldatenbriefe' labels were used throughout Germany during the decades leading up to the first World War. The origin and use of these labels are explained.
The concluding part (no.5) to a stimulating series of articles on one of the most successful of the German private post organisations. This part deals with Letter cards included those printed to private order, folded letter sheets, wrappers, postage due envelopes, postal stationery for money transfers and forms.
The author describes and illustrates the special cancels, stamps and cards used on the 'Stamp Days' held from 1936, on the first Sunday after 7 January, the anniversary of the birth of Heinrich von Stephan.
A comprehensive summary by an accredited expert of the Polish Philatelic Union (PZF) of all known forged datestamps, illustrated and described, whether they be copies of genuine datestamps or completely spurious ones.
As a counterweight to the collecting of the 'yacht stamps' the author explores an unusual aspect of German colonial postal history: a look at letters and cards sent into the colonies. Many of the illustrations are in colour including some lovely cards to Shanghai, Deutsch Neu Guinea, Swakopmund and Apia in Samoa.
Throughout the whole of Germany from May 1872, soldiers on active service up to the rank of sergeant, or its equivalent, were entitled to receive personal mail free of postage. Such mail was to be inscribed 'Soldatenbrief. Eigene Angelegenheit des Empfängers'. The article, illustrated in colour, provides a comprehensive look at such mail, and the many types of privately produced labels containing the required inscription.
The author analyses twenty-five pieces of P.O.W. mail relating to the detention of a German gunner in Butterwick and other camps in Yorkshire. A fascinating story emerges.
More special cancels, stamps and postcards illustrating each 'Tag der Briefmarke'.
The original flight plan for the 1929 flight was to include a flight over Egypt landing at Cairo, but at the last minute the itinerary had to be changed for political reasons. The revised arrangements, cachets etc are described and profusely illustrated in colour.
In this article the author explains and illustrates the use of portopflichtige and frei and related terms on 19th century official mail.
A look at some aspects of anti-Semitism particularly the use of an unusually large cachet on mail from the Reichsmusikkammer.
An article shared with the Belgium Study Circle looking at details, particularly censorship, of a correspondence comprising thirty items sent in 1916 and 1917.
A first-hand account by a German Signals Officer who was assigned to the task of making the Estonian telecommunications system operative once more following the retreat of the Russians. In undertaking this task he also took a special interest in the parallel 'resurrection' of the letter delivery service, taking detailed notes of all happenings that could possibly be of philatelic interest.
The story behind the fund launched by Dr. Hugo Eckener which raised 2.5 million Reichsmarks and without which the 'Graf Zeppelin' LZ127 airship would never have been built. The article describes and illustrates the special labels which were designed to be affixed to mail, the publicity postmarks and special postcards, advertising material and a special bronze plaque.
A major article giving the background to the building of the unarmed blockade-running submarines 'Deutschland' and 'Bremen'. Details of the two voyages to and from the USA by the 'Deutschland' are given with many illustrations, many in colour, of the associated postal material including the adhesive stamps for supplementary charges, the cachets and Zurück markings.
A photograph that purports to be a genuine Hoffmann, official picture of von Paulus who was promoted Field Marshal immediately prior to the surrender of the German VIth Army at Stalingrad. But the photograph raises some intriguing questions...
The author illustrates what appears to be the remarkably few airmail directional handstamps relating to Berlin he has found, compared to other major airports, and seeks information on other handstamps that readers may be aware of.
This article follows on from the one in Vol.39/3. It provides information, with illustrations from stamps and postal stationery on (i) the Wartburg and the Contest of the Singers, (ii) the Wurzburg Residence, (iii) Rococco - The Augustus and Falkenlust Castles in Bruhl, (iv) Prussian Arcadian Castles and Parks in Potsdam and Berlin, and (v)the Period of Enlightenment - Dessau and Worlitz - the Gardens
A concise biography of the organiser of the German postal system with illustrations of his birthplace, the Royal Prussian Post Office in Stolp where he started his postal career, autograph documents and other items as well as a splendid colour picture of von Stephan in his State dress.
Although collectable items are available from before 1914, the onset of the First World war opened the floodgates for Red Cross material. Some superb items are researched and illustrated, many in full colour, under the headings 'Publicity and Fund Raising', 'German Red Cross Hospital Trains', 'Red Cross Hospitals', 'First Aid Columns' and 'Prisoner of War Enquiries'.
The wartime periods covered are WW1, WW2 and post-WW2. Some most interesting covers are examined, with labels translated and explained under such headings as (WW1) 'occupied Germany', 'mail to neutral countries', 'after the Armistice'; (WW2) 'The closure of the LATI route'; (post WW2) 'The position of Yugoslavia'. 'Poland', 'Mail to Austria 1948' and 'The Gulf War 1991'.
This article focuses on the so-called 'Roland' cards, many of striking design and colour, which were issued at the time of the exhibition.
The author shares with other members four interesting post WW2 zones covers addressed to the Austrian Delegation in Hannover which he found at the stamp fair associated with our AGM weekend in Bristol in October. Another good reason to come to our annual get-togethers.
The article includes selections from an exhibit relating to the stamp issued in 1996 commemorating the 450th anniversary of Luther's death. Background information on Luther is given as well as illustrations of, and commentary on, the competitive designs for the stamp, the selected design and the many ways in which the selected designs are marketed by the German Post Office.
From a superb one-frame exhibit given at our AGM weekend in Bristol - seventeen covers, each of great interest, are illustrated in full colour showing the different routes to China. The postage rates and routes are all succinctly explained. The study covers routes via Moscow and Siberia, via India, and South America carried by German, British, Dutch and French airmail and partly by Zeppelin.
A selection of eight pages of illustrations of varieties which speak for themselves as the effort that has been put into the drawings makes the pictures self-explanatory - which is as well as the descriptions are all written up in Hungarian!
A further instalment of detailed analysis of cachets and labels following the law of 15 November 1918 which stopped the military censorship and instituted the exchange control.
The stamp in question was issued in 2006. In 1356 the oral tradition of the election of the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by seven electors was written down in the document that is called 'The Golden Bull' with far-reaching consequences, as explained.
Prof. Dr Weil is one of the many once celebrated, now largely forgotten, medical discoverers. The author uses a collection of letters which were addressed to Weil in Heidelberg and Stuttgart as a student, later as a doctor, to illustrate postmarks and routes of the period. The letters date from 1867 to 1875.
Following an article written for Germania in May 2006, the author describes and illustrates a set of ZE postcards previously unknown to him.
An article written by Herr Wolfgang von Zeppelin about the activities of a small Society which works tirelessly and quietly for children in need. Many interesting cards and covers have been produced in support of this cause. Many collectors regard the collecting theme 'Zeppelin NT' as a logical development of classical Zeppelin mail. To accompany the article a comprehensive selection of modern Zeppelin NT Kinderppost mail is illustrated in colour.
The author describes how by showing a treasured 'S.M.S. Danzig' cover in his collection at a Society display, he learned that it had been sent by Prince Adalbert, the third son of Kaiser Wilhelm II.
The author presents a small collection of these proforma cards all with souvenir postmarks in the hope that more light can be shed on this under-researched facet of German philately.
This part gives background information, illustrated with stamps, special cancels and covers on: the Berlin Museum Island, the 'Bauhaus' in Weimar and Dessau, the Volklingen Ironworks, Trier, Quedlinburg and Goslar.
During the period 1922-43 people were permitted to post their letters into post boxes on the tram cars in Hamburg. This detailed article includes a map of the tram routes, a tabulation of tram post cancels, colour illustrations of ordinary, express and foreign covers, and postal rates. The end of the tram post in 1943 is described as well as its short reintroduction between 1949 and 1958.
A fine and unusual selection of covers of Russian Zone provisionals, illustrated in colour, reflect the turbulent post-war period. They include AM Post frankings accepted and not accepted, mixed frankings, censor marks, COD and registered mail with Provinz Sachsen, Mecklenburg Vorpommern, Berlin, Thüringen frankings and Großräschen, Stadt Niesky, Plauen and Spremberg locals.
The series continues with stamps and special cancels illustrating the glories of the Hanseatic towns of Lübeck, Stralsund and Wismar; the 'Franconian Rome' - Bamberg; the town of poets and philosophers - Weimar; 65 Kilometres of World Heritage - the Upper Middle Rhine and 'The Window on the History of the Earth' Grube Messel.
Quite extraordinarily, two private postal companies with the identical name, as above, were founded in the city of Dresden in September 1911. This fascinating article begins to unravel the mystery.
This is not an article as such but nineteen pages scanned in colour from an exhibit - it includes stamps, cancels and covers of various categories including forerunners, 'Boxer Rebellion', Marine Schiffspost and Fieldpost.
A one-pager illustrating a commercial card sent from Danzig to Warsaw on 1.9.1916. It was censored in Posen, and had a local stamp affixed for delivery direct the addressee.
This small vessel, along with others, was requisitioned for use in the war as a supply ship and mail distributor in the estuary of the rivers Jade and Weser. She was issued with an unusual wartime cachet.
The author seeks help on understanding two envelopes and where the censorship was done. The article includes a useful summary of postwar political events in Bavaria.
The attractively designed cards and vignettes were designed by pupils, and possibly one or two teachers, of the Dresden Art Academy - only a few passed through the post but they clearly represent an interesting facet of the social history of Dresden in the early twentieth century.
Illustrated and described are a number used forms connected with the period when Kamerun was part of the German colonial empire; the range covered includes certificates of posting, forms used to collect charges due, packet cards, a notice of inability to deliver a parcel, a list of parcels received from abroad, an international money form, 'Postsache' envelopes, and a 'Rückschein' acknowledgement form.
Mater marks play an important part in German philately. This article provides a most attractive and unusual way of illustrating the history of a particular territory. Numerous examples are shown of Francotyp manufacturer's record cards giving specimen impressions of the meter marks and recording changes made to them, often made as a result of the changing administration. Such cards are rarely seen and effectively are the primary source record for information on the period of use of the marks in question. Advertisements for the Francotyp and Komusina machines are appended to the article.
The author has found little background research material but has put together what facts are known alongside illustrations of a number of cards from his collection. The pre-printed cards were intended for the recipient of the gift parcel to complete, sign and return. Three of the cards came through an organisation called DEHAWI in Lisbon with parcel recipients in Pforzheim, Sackingen and Vienna. There are Scandinavian activities as well: parcels were sent to Denmark, Norway and Finland from Swiss senders.
The article covers a range of postal items illustrating the development of the service during its period of operation from 1925 to 1935. These include examples of first and last flights, multiple flights, mail from crew members, instructional marks for cancelled or unavailable flights and a selection of foreign acceptances as Treaty States mail.
After the Austro-German Postal Union came into being in April 1850, the many German States began to introduce postage stamps and printed stationery. The article includes colour illustrations of the first issues of Bavaria, Saxony, Prussia, Schleswig Holstein, Hanover, Brunswick, Oldenburg, Bremen, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Hamburg, Lübeck, Württemberg, Baden and Thurn & Taxis with comments on their background and design.
Another little known facet of of WWII postal history is revealed, but only to a limited extent, as once again the author has found no background literature to explain the use of these pre-printed cards. Those illustrated sent by clothing manufacturers list the contents of orders and their 'points' scores. More information is needed.
This article first appeared in Vol.47/2 of 'The Cinderella Philatelist'. The author, a long-time collector of classic German Private Postal material, sets out an overview of what is, in reality, a complex postal service privatisation process, and the resulting stamp/label/vignette issues of the modern day private companies in Germany. A detailed table of service dates and issues by town is provided.
In 1947 a contingent of some 4000 Danish troops was stationed, at first, in East Friesland. Postal arrangements for Den Danske Brigade are described in detail (postal rates, cancels etc) as well as for the Danish Command created in 1949.
Better colour illustrations are given of items referred to in Vol. 44/1
Prussia was the first German State to issue postal stationery, an idea 'borrowed' from the contemporary British postal stationery. This article examines the Prussian 1851/2/3/5 issues in detail.
The yacht had been built on Shooters Island, New York. She was christened by the daughter of US President Theodore Roosevelt. The event was a significant boost to German-American relations and was celebrated accordingly. Four postcard publishers of the time issued special cards, of sophisticated design - as illustrated in colour.
There is little in the literature about postage due of GEA. This article fills the gap!
The author shows how certain Dienstmarken were in fact used as official post office census labels and examines their usage and the need for them.
The Berliner Privatpost und Spedition A.G. proved to be such a serious competitor to the Berliner Packetfahrt A.G., that in June 1897 the latter acquired their business. Various postal items are illustrated from the time of the transfer.
The two letters in question were sent home to Bonn by a Militärarzt (Medical Officer) Dr. Wilhelm Lange who at the time was attached to the 2nd battalion of infantry regiment No.80. The first letter was sent on 11 August 1870 from Clermont-en-Argonne, the second on 23 September from the outskirts of Paris.
An adaptation of a gold medal exhibit telling the story of the pioneering life of Anton Hechler who emigrated from Darmstadt in 1871 to the USA. The story is told through covers, postcards and memorabilia.
The author reveals the story behind a doubly censored cover, dated 1 March 1944, addressed to a seaman on board the German ship M.S. Nord-Atlantic which had been heavily bombed but managed to reach the Spanish naval port of El Ferrol del Caudillo.
This article first appeared in the 100th edition of 'Stadtpost', the journal of The Stadtpost Collectors Group. Peter Rogers celebrated this centenary as Editor by showing a selection of his favourite covers and cards.
The author explains that genuinely used material from the short-lived 'Hansa II' is arguably the scarcest of all the German Town Posts and then goes on to show a card uprated for express delivery and two express letters!
This article first appeared in the June 2008 issue of 'Czechout', the journal of the Czechoslovak Philatelic Society of Great Britain. A letter containing stamps was sent on 28 June 1921 from Moravia to Stade-Campe, near Hamburg. The letter was opened by an inspector at Dresden Postal Supervision Office who then sent a postcard to the addressee requesting that he obtains an import licence. This was not produced within the given time, so the letter and contents were impounded. But the card and cover were eventually linked together again.
The author recounts how in the rapidly developing market of modern day German private posts, "there have been many company takeovers, consolidations, alliances and closures, all tempered with a touch of political intrigue which far outshines the efforts of Machiavelli."
Valuable background and sound advice which may help readers avoid pitfalls and disappointment.
Just why was the postcard illustrated date stamped on 19 March 1943 twice, seemingly twelve hours apart? two possible explanations are given - but readers may be able to think of another.
Zuckmayer's play is based on real events that took place in Imperial Berlin before the First World War. It is very popular as a play and has been filmed twice. The main event in the play created a new word 'Köpenickiade', meaning an unusual, determined and courageous action.
A censored USSR postal stationery envelope bought cheaply on eBay, turns out to be a scarce and poignant example of mail sent on 21.5.1941 into the Warsaw ghetto by a sender whose address was given as The Jewish theatre c/o State Polish Theatre in the Bielorussian Soviet Socialist Republic.
The author explains how a postal stationery card sent from Tabora to Nuremberg on 13.7.1914 could only have been carried on the last pre-WW1 voyage of the Rhenania from Dar-es-Salaam, even though it lacks the tell-tale German arrival and transit datestamps.
One of the heroes of the Second World War well known to many Poles is Bronisław Czech, an Olympic skier, who used his mountaineering skills in the illegal smuggling of wanted men out of German occupied territory. He was caught and sent to Auschwitz - the German authorities made him an offer that he be Germanised and ski for the Fatherland - but he refused outright. Czech was consequently cruelly mistreated and died in the camp in June 1944. It is a moving story with letters of his from Auschwitz, including one superbly illustrated by him.
This promises to be the first in a series of articles dealing with the Nothilfe charity stamp booklets which appeared from 1925 to 1935. With the aid of diagrams and colour illustrations, the author provides a detailed study of the make-up of the booklets.
The author describes how Berlin has been the centre of his collecting activity for nearly 40 years and how the finding of a postcard showing the sinking of the Berlin in the early part of the 20th century led to further discoveries and the putting together of a fascinating display.
Following the demise of the Berliner Verkehrs-Anstalt 'Hansa I' on 19.11.1886, and the subsequent acquisition of parts of its business by the Berliner Packetfahrt, some spectacular frankings of 'Hansa I' stamps with Packetfahrt cancels were contrived.
The author found an envelope addressed to the British Legion Volunteer Police Force from Denmark. It was marked 'DISBANDED' and returned to Denmark. Subsequent research revealed its connection with the story of the volunteer force at the height of the Sudetenland crisis of 1938.
The 'Hansa' stamp in question was issued in 2006, depicting a 'Kogge' (Hanseatic ship). The story of the Hanseatic League is told concisely - from its 13th century beginnings to its 15th century decay.
One possibility foreseen by the meticulous German administration at the end of the 19th century was that official mail sent without an official seal needed to be authorised in an alternative way. Such mail was either endorsed by hand or with a handstamp 'In Ermangelung eines Dienstsiegels'.
A useful table originally published in 'Michel Rundschau 12/2008'
With the outbreak of WW1 the German colony was invaded by vastly superior, South African-led forces who established military post offices as they occupied the territory. From the latter half of 1915, post offices were gradually re-established as civilian post offices. This article studies the adapted German postmarks used.
The author explains how a chance acquisition of a wartime cover awakened an interest in postal history which has never subsided...why not write your own account of how you started collecting?
This article first appeared in Vol.62/1 of 'TPO', the journal of the TPO & Seapost Society, and is reproduced with their kind permission. It has been possible since 1964 for sailors on Steinhuder Meer near Hanover, to post mail in an officially recognised floating postbox in the middle of the lake.
A rare example of special postal stationery for 'Bibelforscher' at Sachsenhausen is 'witness' itself to a sad chapter in history.
The second in a series of detailed studies with full colour illustrations.
Some scarce covers from the 19th century German royalty illustrate the principles of German royal mail.
The demise of the private posts came into effect on 1 April 1900. On the same day the Reichspost introduced a new local postcard rate of 2 pfennigs. This gave rise to some interesting postal usages, as briefly examined in this article.
A follow-up to the article in Vol 44/3 which may be of interest those who want to have inflation material expertised. The information is also applicable to other material.
The core of this short article is adapted from an article by Dr. Christian Hermann for the Military Historical Museum of the Bundeswehr in Dresden. It includes a detailed tabulation of the various leaflets dropped over Dresden and several are illustrated.
The British Occupation Authorities' civil mail regulations are described. A good selection of cover and cards are shown, illustrating the various cachets used by the Chambers of Commerce, Town Halls and Police in the Rhineland.
A 144c stamp, Michel 2436, was issued by Germany on 3.1.2005 illustrating the Keltenfürst vom Glauberg. The article tells the story of the remarkable discovery of a 5th century BC life-size statue of a Celtic warrior.
At the end of the war large quantities of Hitler stamps were found stored in many post offices in Saxony. These came into use in May 1945 with obliterations from corks, ink-bottle stoppers and by other methods. The article surveys their usage with colour illustrations of covers, postal stationery and parcel cards.
The registered 10Pf postal stationery envelope from Heligoland in 1879 described is particularly interesting as it is sealed with a blue German-style British Post Office seal.
Reproduced by kind permission of the author and editor of 'The Cinderella Philatelist', the article tells the remarkable story of the sheets of postage stamps used by the 'Sword and Plough' resistance organisation. A number of sheets of the stamps were discovered by the Wehrmacht after the Warsaw Uprising.
The items shown represent the remainder of a 'Dresden Diplomatic mail' collection. They are from the General Consulate of the Czechoslovak Republic between the wars.
A useful English translation of the key regulations.
A special postmark and set of six souvenir cards commemorated this meeting. The cards, which are illustrated, are rarely found. Details are given of some of the units involved.
One of a series of occasional, detailed and painstakingly researched articles on the subject of German Exchange Control 1918 to 1925.
The registered cover, sent from Kamerun to Lagos on 17.10.1900, was franked with a block of 15 25Pf stamps - it is therefore heavily overfranked but does not appear to be 'philatelic', but what other explanation could there be?
In 1891 a certain David Cohn of Berlin posted a registered packet to Italy but the Italian post office reassessed the weight and levied postage due equivalent to an average weekly wage - not surprisingly the packet was refused!
A crew member of the Graf Zeppelin, one Albert Thasler, was also a collector of Zeppelin mail. Over the years he attempted to arrange mail from unusual, even exotic, places to be flown on board the airship. Two such are illustrated.
Herr Krippner designed and hand painted 'patriotic' covers - he was also convicted of forging stamp cancellations - his story is as colourful as his covers of which, to date, 144 have been identified.
Zille (1858-1929) was a painter, photographer and graphic artist, whose drawings often are accompanied by appropriate texts in the Berlin dialect. Five different stamps are illustrated which pay tribute to this remarkable man.
This is a real object lesson in the virtues of knowing your postal history! The author recognized many unusual features of a cover sent from the Ukraine to Brest-Litowsk in 1944 which added up to make it a very scarce and valuable item - and he secured it for a fiver! Read and learn.
If you didn't find out from the previous article, then you will now! A 1944 parcel card from Minsk prompts the author to trace the history of the place.
Did you know there is a place in Germany called England? Read and learn!
The author gives a fascinated potted biography of Schurz, including his recollections of meeting Karl Marx in Cologne, and an account of how he saved a man from execution when a major general in the American civil war.
This is the concluding article in a trilogy recording the transition of the German postal service from a state monopoly to an open privatised business sector. The first two parts appeared in the February and August 2008 issues of Germania.
The author describes a letter to Bucharest posted on 31 August 1915, censored in Breslau and returned to sender.
This part covers 'Return to sender' markings, wax seals and manuscript markings, and Post Office cachets in detail. Two useful appendices cover (i) the historical context of conflicts surrounding East Prussia 1918-1923 and (ii) routing instructions for Königsberg Postal Supervision Office.
This article not only provides a great deal of information but also indicates where more can be found. The illustrations include photo cards of Henlein, Hitler and the Freikorps, a document dated 26.9.1938 giving the organisation and strength of the Sudetendeutsches Freikorps, and a letter (with translation) of the same date seeking recruits. Also shown are Freikorps mail and cachets.
A cover, sent on 9.1.1915, with various cachets, demonstrates that German-occupied Belgium was treated as an enemy country for the purpose of civilian communications from Germany.
In fact two stamps are shown, both French - (i) Stanke was at one time a German army chaplain at the Bordiot prison at Bourges, France. At the risk of his own life, he actively helped the Résistance. (ii) Another German chaplain, Abbé Franz Stock, was also honoured by the French PTT, in 1998, for his courage and moral integrity.
Further to the article in the last issue, a COD letter sent from Memel on 16.1922 is analysed in great detail.
The carton of the booklet cover comes in two thicknesses - 190,218 of which were sold. Two variants of the booklet pane are described and illustrated, according to the perforation in the margin. Full information on the booklet sheet is also given.
The author seeks information on a decorative envelope, with no space on its face for address or postage stamp - perhaps produced to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the royal wedding in 1854, or possibly the 40th in 1869.
A cover signed by the great-nephew of the famous 'Red Baron'.
Some choice covers with German connections, selected from a display given at the Royal Philatelic Society London on 27.11.2009, are illustrated and described. These include beauties from Sudan to Württemberg 1846, Saxony to China 1860, and North German Confederation to New Zealand 1868.
Due to the extensive wartime damage to the Rohrpost network in Berlin and East/West split, a new rapid postal system was designed and began to operate on 1.3.1949 - it was one of the most unusual postal systems ever devised. Many covers are illustrated and the network and tariffs are described.
The head of the Memel German 'police service' confiscated a quantity of Lithuanian stamps and had them overprinted and put on sale on 23 March 1939. The incoming official Reichspost team took a dim view of such 'private labels'. It's an intriguing story.
(Reprinted from the 'German Postal Specialist March 2010, with kind permission of the GPS) The purpose of the article is to acquaint readers with the restrictions placed by the Reichspost on registered mail in the later phases of WW2, rather than to further the debate about SA/SS covers.
One of the more interesting examples of 'patriotic' anti-German propaganda labels from WW1 are those, believed to be four in number, produced for the firm of Winox Ltd. The labels are illustrated and the designs are described.
The curious story of a PoW card to Greece that arrived with over a year's delay. The author's assiduous research reveals the life and work of Antonius Raab, a man of talent, principle, idealism and ingenuity.
The motifs on two commemorative covers produced by the G&CPS in 1967 reveal not only a great deal about the refugee/PoW camp but also about the early history of the Federal Republic.
An in-depth study of Professor Alois Kolb's original designs, and the Reichsdruckerei-produced essays and proofs held by the Museumsstiftung Post und Telekommunikation, Archiv für Philatelie, Bonn, showing the evolution of the accepted designs, and those rejected along the way.
The author uncovers the swashbuckling life of Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben.
Germany's economy was in tatters - even the Post Office had to be, and seen to be, economical. Money was saved by using up outdated adhesive paper seals, and postal stationery cards and by manpower savings.
This follow-up article responds to the appeal for more information in Vol. 44 No. 1 on these little known cards and the system behind them.
The cover was bought cheaply on eBay and turns out, after a bit of detective work, to feature elements of Polish, German, German-Ukranian and Russian political or postal history.
A musketeer from the 2nd Company, 3rd Battalion of the Großherzoglich Mecklenburgisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 90 writes to probably his father in August 1917. The regiment had been involved in heavy fighting against the British in Flanders.
On 8 May 1900, a vertical pair of stamps on a letter caused no end of problems for the Berlin post office as they tried to cancel both stamps through the machine.
The overprinted stamps Mi. 119-138 were valid throughout the German Reich from 6 April 1920 to 30 September 1923. The author has put together a good selection of covers showing different usages of the stamps from Dresden.
This article first appeared in a special issue for IBRA 2009 of the 'Zeppelin Post Joyrnal' (Vol. 3, No.2). It exposes a number of dangerous forgeries of 'exotic' Zeppelin mail, and provides guidance on identifying them as forgeries.
This article provides background to the postal service established in the Ghetto from March 1940. Two issues of stamps were produced featuring Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski. the Elder of the Jews.
In 1974 RAF Laarbruch was granted the Freedom of Weeze, near the Dutch border. A cover described here commemorates the first military unit in Germany to receive such an honour.
A wrapper for a package of stamps delivered from the Reichsdruckerei gives an insight into the method used for the distribution of stamps to post offices in the 1920s.
2010 marks the bicentenary of the death of Queen Luise. She has been held in high esteem in Germany over the past two centuries for the way she tried to intercede with Napoleon at Tilsit on behalf of Prussia.
The reform is neatly illustrated by an instructive cover posted in Berlin on 24 June 1948 when for just one-day West Berlin was the only place in Germany with the Reichsmark still circulating.
The first German stamp booklet was released on 1 November 1910. The author's extensive research reveals the fascinating detail behind its development and issue. Experimental and sample booklets from various archives are illustrated along with examples of the first booklet.
Postcards marking events for the 'Friends of New Germany' and the 'German American Bund' reveal unpleasant ideological activities in 1930s New York.
A postcard written two days prior to the occupation of Aussig on 9 October 1938 provides a sad reminder of the dark days of the annexation of the Sudetenland.
The clear cachets and postmarks on a cover of 14.8.1961 reveal regulations regarding the use of used Zentraler Kurierdienst covers and their contents, Landpost addresses and a lot more besides.
A further follow up on the article published in Vol. 44/1 with more information in 46/3.
In two short articles, the author explains the authorisation process for Feldpost, illustrating examples of handstamps, one including the abbreviation 'S.B.' for 'Soldaten-Brief' and a picture of a German trench mortar (Minen-Werfer), as well as a picture postcard of Kriegslazarett 1/VIII Mädchenschüle Gr. Hauptquartier, Westen incorporating a portrait of the MO in charge.
On 9 January 1916 a small steamer left Wilhelmshaven harbour with a cargo of supplies for the beleaguered forces in East Africa. Apart from armaments the ship was also carrying fresh supplies of postage stamps including the 1 Rupie on watermarked paper. Only 50 out of a probable 400 of the stamps have been recorded as still extant to date.
This article first appeared in 'The Danzig Philatelist' No. 13 Jan-Mar 2010, based in turn on one published in German in 2005 as 'Literatur No.849', by the Arge Danzig. The title is self-explanatory. The extraordinary story of the 'battle' emerges from a number of late 19th and early 20th century philatelic journals.
An unmounted mint pane of six 10Pf from the first experimental booklet of 1900 has just been discovered - there could be more.
To aid the ordering by post of charity postage stamps, booklets and cards special order forms were produced which incorporated pictures of the stamps. The author illustrates and describes a number of these.
Several covers and cards are described and illustrated which are not only philatelically illustrating but have political or historical significance.
An extraordinary account of Harris flying the Graf Zeppelin on a round trip from Cairo in 1931.
An unusual feature of the German Exchange Control was that samples of merchandise could be taken to a Customs Office attached to a post office to have the contents checked. Two examples of postal sendings of such samples from 1920 and 1922 are given with explanations of the postal charges, markings and routings.
A short introduction to what to look out for and be aware of.
A postcard sent from Berlin in 1919 to Beaumarais in the Saar was returned as 'not permitted' - the return cachet begs various questions.
A self-answered query reprinted from the journal of the Austrian PS about a parcel card sent from Vienna to St. Ruprecht bei Klagenfurt in 1938.
Somebody amused himself at GHQ by misusing authorising handstamps!
The onset of the inflation is illustrated by a postcard from a hotelier, a banknote-dealer's price list, a wholesaler's notification of price increases and a circular notifying a cool 179,900% price hike!
A letter from Burg addressed to the Pomona Diamond Mines Co attracts two strikes of a cachet "Zurück wegen Kriegszustand" (Return because of war situation).
Detective work reveals that the card was made available for sale on 29 March 1900 not 1 April as stated in Michel. Local postage and postal due rates are explained in detail.
A sad story is revealed about the discovery of this error (Mi. 7DD) in 1948.
There is no longer any excuse for getting this wrong!
NordBrief was established on 1 May 2005 as a subsidiary of the regional newspaper Kieler Nachrichten based in Kiel. A mail service has been available to private customers since 14 February 2007 along with the first issue of stamps which are illustrated with their subjects explained.
A letter sent from Italy to Germany in WWII attracted 12 different handstamps!
An (authorising) letter handstamp reading "BALLON-ABWEHR-KANONEN-ZUG 154" (Defence Guns Balloon Crew 154) on a postcard written by a German soldier allocated one of the most dangerous tasks.
The author paints a portrait of the 'Iron Chancellor', arguably the most significant figure in the history of Germany and certainly its chief architect.
An image from the Deutsches Post-Archiv of the interior of a coach used by the Berlin Strassenpost
A card written on one of the special trains organised for Germans to travel to the Saar during the voting process.
The author gives a flavour of the fun that can be had with Dezemberbriefe, as letters from December 1923 are termed.
A DDR miniature sheet issued on 18 Oct 1977 marked the bicentenary of the birth of Heinrich von Kleist (1777-1811). The sheet also shows Prinz Friedrich von Homburg with his laurel wreath. The author provides the historical background.
An 1894 postal stationery card from Hamburg to Darlington stimulates research which reveals a story of a ship saved by being sunk whilst on fire.
This letter shows how recent events can make for collectable postal history - an airmail letter posted in Germany for Kuwait in February 1991 was returned to sender with a label attached that reads (in translation) 'Airmail service to Iraq and Kuwait temporarily suspended. Re-presentation problematic for the time being'.
A full colour picture postcard produced especially to mourn the death of Bismarck on 30 July 1898 posted from Friedrichsruh, his home village, on 3 August 1898, just four days later!
A field post stamp reveals the vanity of the Kaiser.
Following on from the first part of the article in the May 2011 issue (47/2) of Germania, the story the private post in 2008/9 is developed with illustrations of their issues of stamps and postmarks.
This article first appeared in the Zeppelin Post Journal Vol.3 No.5, Winter 2009 and is reproduced by by kind permission of the author and editor, Dieter Leder. It follows on from the special edition of forgeries previously published and reprinted in the August 2010 issue (46/3) of Germania.
22 June 2011 marks the 70th anniversary of the German attack on the Soviet Union. The story of that bloody campaign is told through field post letters and propaganda cards.
The item in question is a field post letter addressed to Nürnberg bearing a clear strike of a standard half- circle Bavarian "Relais I" stamp dated "11/2" .
This follows on from an article in Vol. 46/2 to provide much greater detail on the overprint plate varieties of these stamps and other information on postmarks.
This comprehensive, profusely illustrated article has been translated from one that first appeared in Der Fiskal-Philatelist: Rundbrief Nr.49 of the ArGe Fiskalphilatelie e.V. in 2010 which we are grateful for permission to publish. The article aims to examine the use of railway freight and revenue stamps based on the example of a small north German private railway.
Nice illustrations of the front page and centre map of a railway timetable for the event, and a special postcard for the German railways.
Various stamp issues are used to illustrate this short biography.
This comprehensive, profusely illustrated article attempts to shed some light on the story behind the launch of a rocket in January 1934 by Gerhard Zucker carrying 'rocket mail'. Detail on the production and usage of the associated special stamps and mail is also provided.
The remarkable story of the Luftwaffe unit still operational forty days after the end of the Second World War in Europe.
A prisoner writes on 7 November 1933 to the voting office of his home town to request his voting papers - there was by then only one party to vote for, namely the Nazis!
Taking two stamps depicting Lessing (1729-1781) as his starting point the author points out the far-reaching implications of Lessing's work. He is described as a fighter for humanity and religious tolerance.
Seven covers illustrate some of the ever-changing contractual alliances of PIN Berlin with global logistics companies.
The 800th anniversay in 1889 was marked by an issue of Jubilee stamps by the private-post company Dresdner Verkehrs-Anstalt Hansa. The stamps, including trial prints, and their usage are described and illustrated. Examples of the associated jubilee postal stationery are also shown.
An unusual Norwegian postal stationery card addressed in 1944 to Litzmannstadt with an attached advice of receipt card reveals a poignant story.
A postal stationery card sent from Berlin in 1942 to the Ältesten der Juden Herrn Chaïm Rumkowski also carried a poignant plea for information about loved ones.
A synopsis of an article which appeared in DBZ in 1993 about the so-called 'Preußischen Justiz-Beamtenstempel' explains their usage and period of use with examples from the translator's Danzig collection.
A postcript to articles appearing in earlier issues of Germania (see 47/1, 46/3 and 44/1 above).
Portopflichtige Dienstsache is official mail where the recipient is required to pay postage due at standard postage rate. From 6 May 1920 to 28 February 1923 a surcharge was imposed.
The author shows a favourite item from his collection.
A number of Feldpost items are described and illustrated including a S.B. (Soldatenbrief) card returned to sender, a Marinesache letter (Naval official matter), a card from army airship Z XII, and a letter from naval airship L. 41.
In seeking help in understanding a cover with two British cachets and a German postmark, the author provides some useful background information on the organisation of British Army Of the Rhine postal services.
The card shows that the Deutsche Nothilfe order cards must have been distributed well in advance and that the stamps themselves must also have been distributed to important charities in advance of the issue date.
The author illustrates an admission ticket to a public meeting in Lunteren on 22 June 1940 arranged by the Dutch Nazis.
A letter posted in Hamburg on 21 July 1919 to Porto Alegre in Brazil was sent back marked "Zurück/Keine Beförderungsgelegenheit" (Return/No opportunity of forwarding).
This detailed and profusely illustrated guide to WWII censorship shows where foreign mail to/from Germany (including Feldpost mail) was routed for censorship, how transit mail was treated, what the various censor marks signify and a great deal more.
A preliminary call for scans of material from the hand of the forger Emil Reinhard Krippner who was selling them between 1885 and 1890 when he was jailed.
A selection of pictorial postcards and the some of the messages on them reveal German attitudes towards black African soldiers.
A number of interesting points emerge from a postcard sent Postlagernd (poste restante) on 22 June 1938 to Gmunden.
A cover sent on 21.6.48 from Köln is endorsed "1. Kastenlehrung" (= first collection, or emptying of the box) to show acceptance of its franking with old Rpf stamps at face value.
Was ten-times franking allowed in the three provinces of the French zone? The simple answer is: Officially it wasn't (but it was sometimes tolerated).
This part deals with (i) early censorship of letters in September to November 1939 and (ii) express censorship for companies with regular correspondents abroad.
A curious unaddressed card with a 10Pf Judenpost stamp, a slogan cancel, and a handstamp of the central Jewish Historical Commission in Poland documents real events.
Two letters from the author's collection prompt him to research the addressee who turns out to have been a pharmacist, an international football player and an eminent German philatelist.
The life and times of Vidkun Quisling are told through Norwegian stamps, postcards and propaganda items.
A letter posted in Kreiensen in Lower Saxony on 13 May 1948 has a label attached saying "zurück kein Postverkehr" (return, no postal service). The author gives a short account of the suspension of mail services to various countries after WWII.
Details of the lives and times, particularly during the Silesian Wars in the 1740/50s, of both Friedrich and Empress Maria Theresia of Austria are illustrated by a number of stamps.
Service suspended to Slovakia in 1944: Slovak National Uprising
The story of the only occasion upon which, in the zeppelin's nine-year life, a flight had to be abandoned due to a structural or mechanical failure.
(Reprinted by kind permission of the author and the editor of Stamp & Coin Mart magazine). The engraver's art is demonstaretd in the German 1941 Mozart and 1943 Vienna Grand Prix stamps, the Austrian Costumes set of 1948 and Princess Gina on a 1990 stamp from Liechtenstein.
(Reprinted by kind permission of the author and the editor of The London Philatelist). The 20Pf black-print postcard: a case where a minister's wife made philatelic history!
This part deals with (i) items referred by one censorship office to another for specialist censoring and (ii) double censorship, real and pretend censorship.
The stamp in question was issued by Germany on 9 August 2012, the 11th centenary of the birth of Emperor Otto I.
The article provides details of the wartime Kinderlandvershickung scheme for the sending of children to the countryside, reception and transit camps in Dresden and examples of letters home from children.
In 1945 a racehorse worth millions is abandoned to its fate.
A Lieutenant writes from the Russian front in October 1917 to his favourite brewery asking for reinforcements!
Information from the internet on the difficulties some censors fin WWII faced not least in reconciling the propaganda they were fed with the awful facts revealed in letters from slave-labourers.
This part deals with (i) items submitted to and censored by the wrong office, (ii) picture postcards, allowed and disallowed, (iii) apparent, not actual, censorship of inland mail, (iv) returned mail and (v) coping with and dodging the censor to communicate with enemy countries.
The author illustrates and explains what he knows about the post-war facsimiles of the 50pf stamps of the 1928 and1929 series, but appeals for more information on their origin.
A look at some attractive vignettes and postcards for the 12th Congress of the German Touring Club and the Union of Cycling Tourists in 1897 and for the 2nd Powered Machinery Exhibition in 1898.
A number of DDR stamps commemorating Engels prompt this thumbnail sketch of his life and work.
A superb item of business correspondence is sent by the quickest route to New York involving the catapult services from both the SS Europa and Bremen.
A converted auxiliary gunboat was used to make scientific tests and observations on crossings of the Atlantic Ocean. Postcards from members of the crew illustrate the story.
The article traces the development of the treatment of returned international letters from the late 19th century to the early 1920s including from the German colonies and post offices abroad.
2013 marks the bicentenary of the writer Christian Friedrich Hebbel.
A number of the popular 'musical frogs' cards are illustrated and described ranging from earlier Gruss aus types through to the 1980s.
Many changes were made over the years in the way the inscription identifying that German stamps were indeed from Germany as seen here with illustrations of some fifty stamps.
A postcard sent from Rottweil 31 December 1919 to Zurich was franked with two 10Pf German National Assembly stamps which were not valid for international use. 23 centimes postage due was raised - the complexities of calculating this are explained.
Stocks of the 2M (Mi. 37e) were supplied to the first postal agencies in GEA at the earliest in Jan. 1891. Detailed information on the use of different shades of the stamp used in GEA is provided. Various parcel cards are illustrated.
A useful table reproduced with kind permission from the journal of the Austrian Philatelic Society.
As seen on a card sent on 7 January 1947 from Osnabrück, in the British zone, to Ljubljana.
Through letters and documents the author tells us much more than what the textbooks can tell us. They offer insights into the torment that individuals lived through and all too often eventually died from.
In the absence of sight of any official notice regarding the exact period of closure of the Versandstelle für Sammlermarken at the height of the inflation, the author tracks the relevant dates from eight items.
A concise explanation of this exhibition class.
Two articles for horse-racing enthusiasts.
The article continues with stamps from the occupation zones, the German Democratic Republic, West Berlin, and the German Federal Republic.
The author shows that there is often an interesting story behind a cheap slogan postmark.
The analysis of a postcard sent from a prison in Berlin to Fiji reveals the extraordinary story of Wallace Ellison, a British prisoner-of-war.
A card sent on 21 September 1900 from Besigheim to neighbouring Bietigheim arrives within an hour!
This very detailed study reveals new information not recorded in the handbooks and catalogues by Horst Landsmann and Karl-Heinz Riemer.
The Deutsche Bundespost was fully privatised from the beginning of 1998 and renamed Deutsche Post Aktiengesellschaft (DPAG). One result has been the growth in personalised stamps and postal stationery.
After WWII the authorities in Germany used slogan postmarks as one way of inculcating a sense of belonging, participation and purpose. Many are illustrated with translations of the slogans.
This article follows on from one in Vol. 48/2. The method of transportation and distribution of British mail is examined as well as the regulations for free franking.
A postal stationery card with a postmark 'Weltreise Kreuzer Emden' dated 7 Oct. 1929 prompts some interesting research.
A significant reworking of an article published in Germania Vol 2/1 (June 1965). By listing the stamps in strict order of issue and considering what postal services they were used for, some remarkable facts emerge.
Examples of 'swiped' WW2 mail are shown and described from France to Denmark, Frankfurt to Sweden, USA POW to Germany, a Gemeinschaftslager to Paris, and a printed matter letter from Berlin to Holland.
A set of the so-called 'mourning stamps' for Germany's lost territories is superimposed on a map to show where those territories were located.
The story behind a 10pf Bavarian stamp overprinted 'Räte= Republik Baiern'.
Continuation of an article started in Vol 49/3. A number of covers are described and shown which bear witness to the legalised theft of Jewish property.
This article amends some points made in an article on Reichskanzler Otto von Bismarck published in Vol. 47/2.
A most remarkable cover from the Military Administration in Romania
Die Janota', as she was known, died on 15 August 2012 at the grand old age of 99. She is known to philatelists as the designer of 38 stamps for the Federal Republic, all of which are illustrated with brief details.
The 55pf stamp honouring Die Himmelsscheibe von Nebra was issued on 9 October 2008. The disc is the oldest known human representation of the cosmos.
This article first appeared in Philotelia 675 of the Hellenic Philotelic Society. It tells the remarkable story one of the first of many acts of French resistance when, in June 1940, the administration of the Paris post office hid from the Germans a large quantity of mail destined for Britain.
A detailed study of the booklets and booklet sheets. Doubt is dispelled about which is the top and which is the bottom of the sheets!
Three horizontal dashes in the censor's stamp reveal the existence of a hitherto unknown censorship sub-office.
A remarkable letter written in English on 26 November 1940 by an elderly Jewish in Berlin to Shanghai. The final paragraph daringly conveys
up-to-date inside information from the Warsaw ghetto.
The article describes an express cover sent on 4 September 1941 from Littoria Scalo in Italy to a work camp in Heerte über Wolfenbüttel, temporary home to one of the almost 500,000 Italian workers who voluntarily went to Germany in the period 1938-43, lured by the prospects of significantly higher wages on offer.
'Fiftieth Anniversary Issue'
An illustration of the 'Dresden Madonna' miniature sheet voted the most beautiful European stamp in 2012.
(Reprinted by kind permission from the 'Collectors Club Philatelist 93/2 - March-April 2014). An historical account of the origins of the conflict and early action illustrated by postcards.
Three German proclamations (Bekanntmachung Nr. 1, 2, 3) are illustrated with a number of interesting mail items which were affected by the restrictions on mail the proclamations dealt with. For example, sealed letters and parcels were no longer accepted and restrictions were introduced on foreign mail.
A look at two interesting letters sent through the United States Embassy in London.
The varied selection of cards and covers described and illustrated include: a letter posted in Britain on 3 August 1914 addressed to Frankfurt which was delivered after examination; examples of censored, delayed and captured mail; propaganda and PoW mail.
Two rare items are examined: a registered (philatelic) postcard from Moschi posted 10 July 1914, carried on the Rhenania, the last German ship to sail for Europe before the outbreak of the war; a commercial registered letter sent from Musoma on Lake Victoria posted on 29 July 1914 addressed to and eventually delivered in London in September.
From circumstantial evidence it can be deduced that some mail from Russia and Finland was seized on 31 July 1914 at Eydtkuhnen railway station. The mail was sent to Danzig for censorship and that for enemy countries was not delivered until after the war. Once war was declared Russian mail for Germany was routed via Tornio (Finland) and Sweden also censored in Danzig.
A number of stamps are illustrated depicting the work of the master sculptor notably his impressive and symbolic Quadriga atop the Brandenburg Gate.
Detailed information on the make-up of the booklets and booklet sheets.
A chance find sheds light on the special plebiscite day slogan postmark.
A detailed survey of wrappers for Germany, German Post Offices in Morocco, North German Postal District, German eastern Command, and some of the 1880s/90s private posts.
With the outbreak of war German East Africa found itself isolated. A route for the mails via Lindi, Moçambique, Lisbon and the Netherlands was set up.
Continuation of an article started in Vol. 49/3 – two postcards serve as a poignant memorial to those unfortunates whom events prevented from escaping Nazi persecution.
Researching a slogan postmark uncovers details of Aktion Eichhörnchen in 1961 should World War III break out!
A Feldpostkarte depicts a scene of utter desolation. Is it an anti-war card or one so nationalistic that it is saying the war must be won even if Europe is destroyed in the process, or is it one pretending to be the other?
A variety of postcards, maps, stamps, special cancels tell the story of this popular tourist destination since the 19th century thanks to its natural beauty, which has also long attracted the attention of German and European aviation pioneers.
A table of rates derived from information published by Deutsche Post DHL.
On both 1 August 1916 and 1 August 1927 letter and postcard rates were increased by 50% but different approaches were taken on each occasion. Part 1 of this major article examines amongst other things the 2½Pf war postal levy which came into effect on 1 August and its effect on stamps and postal stationery.
Two covers are illustrated showing mistakes made by the Hamburg post office and exchange control inspectors in 1919/20.
In the UK a ‘billion’ used to mean one million million. The franking of over a billion marks on a large express airmail cover sent from Hamburg to Manchester on 24 November 1923 was a mere 20,000 million marks underfranked.
A 10Pf stamp placed carefully over a 5Pf stamp, an eight-day journey from Mainz to Grindelwald, a change of address, an ‘Unbekannt’ label...
A handstamp reading ‘Für Frieden, Einheit und ein glückliches Leben’ was applied to a letter from the BRD to the DDR to counter the implicit message in the postage stamp.
In this first part the period before 1933 is examined – described as the period of free choice and coexistence. Different printing styles in stamps, postcards and postal stationery are examined in depth.
Two SdP propaganda stamps were added to the franking on a postcard sent on 3 October 1938 from Friedland in Böhmen the day after the town had been occupied by Germany. The author seeks more information.
Two conversion tables provide (i) RM, £, US$ exchange rates pre-WW1 then for each January 1924 to 1940 and (ii) £ to various European currencies in January 1938.
A summary of how the virtual philatelic exhibition at www.exponet.info has developed over its ten years of existence.
Egon Falz (1932-2010) started his career at age 16 and retired in 1995. The quality of his work is shown on a number of stamps – a particularly fine example being the portraits of Adenauer and de Gaulle on the stamp issued in 1988 to commemorate 25 years of Franco-German cooperation (Mi. 1351).
German covers in the inflation period routed via the fortnightly British airmail service from Cairo to Baghdad are a rarity. The service is examined in detail in relation to two covers dated 4 December 1923 and 7 August 1923.
This survey not only compares the different designs but also gives a summary of control markings used, particularly the Puntlücken (dots removed from address lines to identify specific printings of a given card).
The ‘Insel Lundy’ overprints on Hindenburg head and other stamps are almost certainly bogus.
An interesting look at ways in which Germany in the 1920s appears to have partially circumvented UPU arrangements for collection of postage due.
A 1908 Russian newspaper wrapper from Riga to Latvia documents an extraordinary 700 years of history of a world which no longer exists.
An attractive cover posted on 10 November 1933 franked with a 25pf Wagner stamp addressed to Wagner’s granddaughter Verena at Haus Wahnfried.
From 1966 to 1971 several West Berlin issues of identical or similar design to those of the Federal Republic had an inscription ‘BERLIN’ in the top margin of the counter-sheets.
(Reprinted from Collectors Club Philatelist 94/1 with kind permission). The events of that war year illustrated by picture cards, fieldpost cards and occupation covers
This part deals with the Third Reich period 1933-41: the ascendance of dogmatic Gothic. Quite apart from the wealth of illustrations of meter marks, special handstamps, slogan postmarks etc., we are given a fascinating glimpse into the world of Gothic typewriters.
A detailed checklist of volume and issue numbers and page numbers marks the 50th anniversary of the Society in 2014.
A description of the novel design of the 1933 Almanach and list of its detachable postcards. Two Danzig-related postcards from a KdF.-Kalender from one of the years 1938-40 and in an Addendum a Winterhilfswerk card from one of the calendars are also shown.
A 1788 letter in superb condition comes to light from which we discover that it was from His Eminence Gottlob August Baumgarten, head of the Royal Evangelical Church Court at Merseburg to Bishop Hermanns at Schleuditz (near Leipzig) enclosing a permission to marry. But it must be done quietly....
This part deals with 1941-45, the period of official Gothic-phobia.
A DDR miniature sheet commemorating the 450th anniversary of the Deutscher Bauernkrieg, as well as stamps depicting Martin Luther and Thomas Müntzer set the scene for events which had a dramatic impact on German history.
The author takes the reader on a journey through Germany from Braunschweig to Bamberg, Naumburg, Bremen and Würzburg examining art treasures on German stamps along the way.
The 1924 issue cards overprinted ‘15Pf.’ in 1925 are mentioned in the Michel Ganzsachen catalogue as having been overprinted without proper authority. They have very high catalogue values.
The latest postage rate rises are shown. A standard inland letter (to 20g) has gone up from 62c to 70c but Deutsche Post say they will now keep that rate unchanged for three years.
The first of a semi-regular column of interesting snippets harking back to our 1980s column by Bill Bruce-Bowling. Covered here: ‘Einschreiben Entwurf’ and ‘Errors in inscriptions on DDR stamps’.
Continuing from part 3 in Vol. 50/4. With the help of the Yad Vashem database the author throws a chilling light on a number of covers which witness vividly the history of the time and form poignant items of Judaica.
A reference in the prize-winning novel Alles Umsonst (All for Nothing) by Walter Kempowski to a stamp supposedly depicting a bridge over the river Helge in Mitkau, East Prussia is most puzzling as neither the stamp nor the place appear to exist.
The curious case of the Bundespost stamp designed in 1980 for the Olympic Games in Moscow but which was not issued. This article first appeared in ‘Deutsche Post’ 28/2 (April 2015), the journal of the Filatelistenvereniging Duitsland.
Two correctly-franked ‘Muster ohne Wert’ registered covers from Tanga are illustrated and described.
This part continues with the 1941-45 period of official Gothic-phobia and then after 1945: the eclipse and ultimate death of Gothic.
Two interesting covers are illustrated and described. The first was sent from the Socombel Hellenic Petroleum Company in Athens to Berlin in January 1942. The second from the Hellenic Industry of Electricity Pylons to Nuremberg in June 1942.
Postage imprinted on an R-label; internet stamps
A table designed to show that it is frequently easy to determine the language of a piece of Cyrillic text just by observing which alphabetic letters have been employed: Russian, Belorussian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian & Croatian.
Two such covers are examined: one written on 21 June 1955, the other postmarked Kazachinskoye 13 December 1955.
A detailed article first published in ‘Postal History’ 355 (September 2015), the journal of the Postal History Society, reprinted by kind permission of both the editor and author.
A survey of the conveniently sized product of the Deutsche Post AG branded ‘Marken-Set’ containing (normally) ten postage stamps.
This article first appeared in Collector’s Club Philatelist 95/1 (Jan-Feb 2016), the journal of the Collectors Club of New York. We are grateful for permission to reprint it as a continuation of ‘1914 – The first war year’ and ‘1915 – The second war year’ (in Germania 50/3 and 51/3). The events of 1916 are here illustrated by picture cards and covers.
The article gives details of rates with illustrated examples for the various classes of letter post to countries that enjoyed concessionary rates less than the full UPU rates charged for mail to the rest of the world.
The author shows various uprated postal stationery cards with Germania imprints which have had one or more of the multiple imprints punched out leaving large holes. Read the article for the reason why.
Interesting snippets about: an early joint issue with Venezuela; an unusual joint issue with Spain; significant dates of issue for definitives; Thurn & Taxis Post.
A registered cover sent on 29 December 1929 from Taganrog to Danzig with a 5 kopek philatelic exchange tax stamp on the back. The system of exchange is explained.
The post offices at the above-named places were opened on 22 November 1888 and 27 August 1890 respectively. The author illustrates and explains a number of covers from these short-lived post offices and the Zanzibar postal agency following the relinquishment by Germany of all rights in Lamu, Wituland and Zanzibar in exchange for the British colony of Heligoland.
In the article ‘Postage rate increase of 50 per cent, Part 1: 1 August 1916’ in Vol 51/1 a question was put about the reason for an unissued 4Pf Germania stamp. A member provides the answer in this article.
Using illustrations of mainly DDR stamps the author tells the story of the infamous Reichstag fire on 27 February 1933.
This part of the article gives an overview of the procedures used by the various German postal administrations from 1872 to the present day to deal with postage due on both inland and foreign mail.
Research into two covers from a Jugendschutzlager inmate reveals details of a concentration camp in Moringen which had closed in 1937, but which was reopened in June 1940 as a camp for delinquent or otherwise undesirable (‘asoziale’) boys.
A Wagner publicity sheet with additional inscription gives rise to the question ‘Has anyone seen anything similar?’
The message dated 20 December 1939 on a card written to one sister to another in Soviet-annexed Poland whose husband was a second lieutenant in the Polish army, one of those listed among the some 15,000 Polish POWs, mainly officers, executed in what is known as the Crime of Katyn.
This article originally appeared in Michel Rundschau 1/2011 and is reproduced in translation by kind permission of both author and publisher. The article covers the technical and postal aspects of markings found in the margins of postwar German sheets of stamps, with some relevance to pre-war ones as well.
DDR stamps with column numbers in ‘bottom’ margin. The date in a postmark is not always what it seems.
An almanac of 1804 shows the number and variety of posts the operating in the city. A full translation is given which is especially useful as some of the old German terms are obscure.
This article on an unusual theme captures one double sheet from a recent display given by the author.
Letters and postcards intended for forwarding on zeppelin flights were sent to post offices in outer envelopes which on arrival were usually discarded. Thus examples have rarely survived.
This part of the article now concentrates on foreign mail and how postage due was calculated. Also covered are redirected mail, returned mail, Entlastet (discharged) mail, excluded mail and the maritime surcharge. A very useful summary of the UPU procedures for postage-due on foreign mail is set out by year and venue of relevant UPU Congresses.
A particular Wertbriefe is used as an example to explain how such insured letters should be treated.
This article was originally published as No.1 of a series of sectional catalogues by the Society’s now defunct German Seals Study Group in October 20003, and is reprinted by kind permission of the author. Some 250 German words (or abbreviations) and their meanings are provided.
Germany & Colonies Philatelic Society